Why You Need Cyber Insurance Policy

Technology, social media and most of internet transactions play important roles in how most of today’s organizations conduct company and reach potential clients. They are also a gateway to cyber-attacks.

Cyber-attacks are likely to occur and can cause modest or severe losses to large and small organizations, regardless of whether the hackers, criminals, insiders or even nations are intentionally or unintentionally driven. As a result of this, organizations regularly have to decide which risks to prevent, accept, regulate or transfer as part of a risk management plan. This is where cyber insurance comes to play; the process of evaluating the risk in cyber space.

What is Cyber Insurance Policy?

Cyber insurance policy is meant to assist an organization alleviate risk exposure by offsetting retrieval expenses following a cyber-related violation of safety or the like. The policy of the cyber insurance company is also referred to as CLIC. Cyber-insurance began to catch up in 2005 with its roots in errors and omissions (E&O) insurance, with a total premium value expected to reach $7.5 billion by 2020. The policy normally covers first party expenses and third-party claims. While there is no standard to be drafted under these strategies, prevalent reimbursable costs are as follows:

Forensic Study – An inquiry into the forensics system must be carried out in order to determine what happened and how the damage can be repaired. The services of a third party safety company and cooperation with law enforcement agencies like FBI in the case of the United States may be included in investigations.

Litigation and extortion: this involves legal costs related to the release of intellectual property and private data, legal settlements and regulatory penalties. This can also include expenses spent on cyber extortion as in the case of ransomware attacks. This is very important as these attacks do not only pose risks for the organization but also for the clients.

Business losses: The cyber insurance policy may include comparable products covered by the failure & omission policy, network downtimes, company interruptions, information loss restoration and crisis management expenses that might affect the reputation harm.

Privacy and notification: This involves requested clients and other interested parties who are mandated by legislation in many jurisdictions for data infringement and loan surveillance for clients who are or may have been in violation of the information.

These are just a few of the benefits of having a good policy put in place for cyber insurance.

A Six-Step Guide to Web Testing

Web applications are being developed with frequency these days, and each code line is liable to potential bugs. The cost of fixing these bugs is significantly more if they are found late, hence the need for web testing which allows developers to identify bugs very early and to test an application thoroughly before its release.

Web Testing varies procedure by procedure, and each of these procedures largely depend on your web testing requirements.

Here are the procedures for web testing

Functionality Testing

Before creating a web app, there must be some specifications that you expect from it as well as functional requirements.

This functional testing happens in the source code and its activities include:

  • Testing all links to ensure that none is broken. Outgoing, internal, anchor and Mailto links are to be checked;
  • Testing forms to guarantee that they are working according to expectations;
  • Testing cookies;
  • Testing HTML and CSS to make sure that search engines bring out your site easily;
  • Testing business workflow.

Usability Testing

This combines the functionality testing with more tests to guarantee the best user experience. This testing can be done within the development team or by getting external testers that are just like the potential user base of the web application.

Usability testing involve:

  • Testing the site navigation – Items such as the links to the site pages, links and menus should be visible;
  • Testing the content to determine that it is legible with zero errors. If there are images, they should contain an “alt test”.

Interface Testing

This web application testing certifies that all the interactions between the application server interface and the web server are smoothly run. The Application, Database Server, and the Web are tested, ensuring a smooth interface and correct display of error messages.

Compatibility Testing

This is a crucial aspect as it involves testing to check that your app is fully compatible with all browsers. The elements of this testing are:

  • Browser compatibility;
  • Operating system compatibility;
  • Mobile compatibility.

Performance Testing

It is also important to check that the functionality of your app is appropriate and responsive under heavy loads. It involves testing it to see its behaviour under regular and high loads and under various speeds internet. You should stress test the app by putting it under growing amounts of stress.

Security Testing

This final stage involves checking to verify that the application is protected against harmful actions (malicious software and viruses) and unauthorized access.

The Basics of Blockchain Architectural Structure

When Satoshi Nakamoto released the whitepaper Bitcoin: A Peer to Peer Electronic Cash System in 2008, which described Bitcoin, blockchain technology made its public debut.

Blockchain, Bitcoin’s technology, has become one of the largest breakthrough technologies today with potential impacts for all industries, from finance, manufacturing, and education. The key features blockchain are decentralization, accountability and safety. This makes the technology to be the perfect tool in the enhancement of operational efficiency and considerably, saving expenses. It has grown in popularity over time, which makes it somewhat important in learning the basic of its architecture; what makes it work. This is a brief on what you need to know on the architectural structure of blockchain.

There are basically three types of architectural structures as far as blockchain is concerned.

Public Blockchain Architecture

A Public Blockchain is a blockchain without permission. Anyone can join the blockchain network, so with a public blockchain they can read, write, or participate. Public blockchains are decentralized, no one controls the network, and they are secure in that once validated on the blockchain, data cannot be changed. The public blockchain is one where anyone can write data to the blockchain, and that data can be read by anyone else. Public blockchain platforms like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin tend to get talked a lot right now as they are examples of technology built on the public blockchain architectural design.

Private Blockchain Architecture

A Private Blockchain, on the other hand, is an authorized blockchain.  They are also called the Permissioned or Enterprise Blockchains. Generally, companies and enterprises who operate on this platform are those that a certain amount of security, privacy, compliance, performance, and many of the properties which can be provided by a private blockchain. Private Blockchain is a little bit of the personal end of the spectrum. People who use the blockchain want to monitor who can write data and who can read the data. And to do this, identity is the first step. It is hard, if not impossible, to define what data they can commit to the directory and what data they can consume in the repository if a user’s identity is not known.

Consortium Blockchain Architecture

If different organizations operate a blockchain together, then that is a consortium blockchain. The participating companies need also to be involved in consensus and decision-making processes in the chain, in order to be a Consortium and not a private chain. Technological solutions such as parity allow for consortium chains to be readily implemented. However, it is essential that the partners concerned control the consortium in a balanced way.

5 Commonly Asked Web Developer Interview Questions and Answers

In this digital age where the Internet is everything, web development and design jobs are highly successful career paths and many big firms hire developers on a regular basis. Going for a web developer interview can be the first rung in the ladder to your dream career. If you really want to excel in the interview, you need to prepare for the commonly asked web developer interview questions.

1. What is web development?

Simply put, web development is the building of functional websites and applications. Its main elements are web programming and web design.

2. What are the responsibilities of a web developer?

As a prospective web developer in a company, you should understand the role and how you’ll contribute to the web development team. A web developer develops, designs, tests, enhances, and deploys web applications with a target of creating a user-friendly and engaging site function and layout.

A developer defines and gathers requirements, maintains websites, troubleshoots and remedies bugs, follows best tech practices and collaborates with other teams.

3. What are static and dynamic websites?

Static websites are basic and very easy to create because they don’t require programming knowledge. The web pages of a static site are coded in HTML.

On the other hand, dynamic websites comprise of dynamic web pages created using server-side languages such as PHP, JavaScript, JSP, ASP, SERVLET, NET, etc. The main benefit of dynamic websites is Content Management System (CMS).

4. How do you optimize and reduce web application load time?

Some of the various techniques a web developer can employ in lessening load time include optimizing images, minimizing HTTP requests and enabling browser catching. A go-to-tool for evaluating site speed is Google PageSpeed Insights.

5. In what programming languages are you proficient?

HTML, CSS, PHP, SQL, Python, Ruby and JavaScript are some of the basic coding languages that a developer should be able to handle conveniently.

The answer to this question will usually determine the candidate’s familiarity with coding languages, level of interest in specific languages, and how he/she fits in with the company and the particular role.

Whether you’re an HR preparing to interview a candidate or you are the candidate, this blog post should be helpful in securing your target – either an ideal candidate or a dream job.

4 Biggest Trends in Web Development at the Moment

The web, alternatively known as the Internet, has become more and more a part of our daily lives in recent years. We use the net for something and everything, ranging from shopping, to reading news, to research, trading and banking.

As the demand for web development talent increases, so also does the scope of what developers can do.

Here’s a list of the main players reshaping the web tech landscape.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence is usually high on the list during talks on the future of technology. The biggest tech companies including Facebook, Microsoft and Google have been releasing their AI tech to the public.

AI is used by large applications to improve search engines (Google) or to identify damaged and inaccurate articles (Wikipedia). Recently, web developers have started using AI in innovative ways due to the increased access to AI development tools.


This is one of the latest web technologies designed particularly for the purpose of building dynamic web applications.

With the regularly updated Angular framework, developers can create front-end based apps without the use of other plugins or frameworks.

Angular features include MVC architecture, well-constructed templates, code generation and splitting, etc.

Progressive Web App (PWA)

PWAs are some of the hottest web trends at the moment. These apps load like the regular web pages, but they have a high functionality level. Regardless of the browser choice or network state, these apps can load instantly because they’re developed with progressive enhancements.

PWA is installable and user-friendly and it enhances the current web technologies – thanks to its in-built features and service workers. The idea of PWA is to create an app-like experience on websites.

Real Time Web Apps

Though these have been around for a long period, they are becoming increasingly more popular because they meet the needs of users for fast interactions.

The key idea of real-time web apps is that the connection between a server and a client is open, and the server pushes new data without the clients having to manually check back to see if something has happened.

This has been very common in the NodeJS world but it is rapidly spreading to other frameworks and languages.

Web technologies are being updated and improved regularly and so web developers should take advantage of this by staying up-to-date.

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